Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products.
The roasting process is what produces the characteristic flavor of coffee by causing the green coffee beans to change in taste. Un-roasted beans contain similar if not higher levels of acids, protein, sugars, and caffeine as those that have been roasted, but lack the taste of roasted coffee beans due to the Millard and other chemical reactions that occur during roasting.
The vast majority of coffee is roasted commercially on a large scale, but small-scale commercial roasting has grown significantly with the trend toward “single-origin” coffees served at specialty shops. Some coffee drinkers even roast coffee at home as a hobby in order to both experiment with the flavor profile of the beans and ensure the freshest possible roast.
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